Endangered Species Case Study: Bengal Tiger
by Krista Bergesen
Tigers have long thrived in a variety of habitats across the Asian continent. Extremely adaptable, these solitary hunters have found their niche in extremely different climates: from the the frozen forests in Russia to the much hotter, tropical climates in India and Indonesia.
However, at this time, it seems that tigers are losing habitat at too quick of a pace to stay a viable species. Because of human activities, tigers have been pushed into a small portion, only 7%, of their historic habitat, leaving only around 3,200 tigers left in the wild.
The Bengal tiger has long occupied vast areas of Indonesia and India, and an especially large portion in what is called the Sundarbans. This large forest of mangroves provides food and shelter to many different species, including around 400 Bengal tigers, an extremely large number given the already dwindling population as a whole. Although the numbers are not conclusive, it is estimated that around 10% of the entire tiger population lives in this large stretch of mangrove forest.
The controlled environment of the Sundarbans strongly promotes biodiversity. Fish use the area beneath the submerged mangrove roots to breed, while the trees shelter the coastal and intertidal zones from cyclones, wind damage, and storm surges. As many as 50 reptile species, 120 fish species, 45 mammal species, and 300 bird species call this forest their home. And tigers here play a very singular role in the ecosystem, swimming between the islands of this area and collecting food from the marine life in addition to spotted deer for their diet.
This area, unfortunately, is in danger. And not just from poachers or deforestation, but from rising sea levels. Global warming has done it yet again. By the year 2070, the sea levels around the Sundarbans are predicted to rise 11 inches. With this drastic rise, the environment will no longer adequately support the tigers or many other species that thrive within the mangroves. And with accelerating habitat destruction, this large forest may not even exist in 50 years at all.
The effects are projected to be devastating. From the estimated 400 tigers alive now, the population is predicted to sink to around 20 breeding tigers because of the 96% decrease in habitat. In addition to the continued effects of poaching and deforestation, the rising sea levels could lead this subspecies into extinction, joining the 2 tiger subspecies already extinct.
The situation seems hopeless. However, local governments have the chance to conserve the threatened mangrove forest as well as curtailing the rampant poaching problem. Also, the region can increase sediment delivery and freshwater flows to the Sundarbans for replenishment of the land. Although this is probably easier said than done, it is hopeful that the situation can be resolved through progressive laws and environmental protection efforts. But it doesn’t end there. The globe as a whole needs to reduce greenhouse gas emissions, otherwise the above efforts and changes will be ineffective in saving the Sundarbans, and with it, its rich biodiversity.
Poston, Lee. “Climate Change Threatens to Wipe Out One of World’s Largest Tiger Populations this Century” <http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2010/WWFPresitem14891.html> 19 Jan. 2010. 22 Feb. 2010.
“New Study Shows Bengal Tiger’s Habitat in Danger.” <http://www.worldwildlife.org/who/media/press/2010/WWFPresitem14914.html> 19 Jan. 2010. 22 Feb. 2010.